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centos7 mysql数据库安装和配置

楼主#
更多 发布于:2017-02-23 23:20
systemctl start mariadb  #启动MariaDB
systemctl stop mariadb  #停止MariaDB
systemctl restart mariadb  #重启MariaDB
systemctl enable mariadb  #设置开机启动
一、系统环境
yum update升级以后的系统版本为:
[root@yl-web yl]# cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS Linux release 7.1.1503 (Core)
二、mysql安装

一般网上给出的资料都是


#yum install mysql
#yum install mysql-server
#yum install mysql-devel

安装mysql和mysql-devel都成功,但是安装mysql-server失败,如下:


[root@yl-web yl]# yum install mysql-server
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.sina.cn
 * extras: mirrors.sina.cn
 * updates: mirrors.sina.cn
No package mysql-server available.
Error: Nothing to do



查资料发现是CentOS 7 版本将MySQL数据库软件从默认的程序列表中移除,用mariadb代替了。有两种解决办法:

1、方法一:安装mariadb
MariaDB数据库管理系统是MySQL的一个分支,主要由开源社区在维护,采用GPL授权许可。开发这个分支的原因之一是:甲骨文公司收购了MySQL后,有将MySQL闭源的潜在风险,因此社区采用分支的方式来避开这个风险。MariaDB的目的是完全兼容MySQL,包括API和命令行,使之能轻松成为MySQL的代替品。


安装mariadb,大小59 M。

yum install mariadb-server mariadb


mariadb数据库的相关命令是:
systemctl start mariadb  #启动MariaDB
systemctl stop mariadb  #停止MariaDB
systemctl restart mariadb  #重启MariaDB
systemctl enable mariadb  #设置开机启动


所以先启动数据库
systemctl start mariadb
然后就可以正常使用mysql了


[root@yl-web yl]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 3
Server version: 5.5.41-MariaDB MariaDB Server
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| test               |
+--------------------+
rows in set (0.00 sec)
 
MariaDB [(none)]>


安装mariadb后显示的也是 MariaDB [(none)]> ,可能看起来有点不习惯。下面是第二种方法。


2、方法二:官网下载安装mysql-server

# wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-community-release-el7-5.noarch.rpm
# rpm -ivh mysql-community-release-el7-5.noarch.rpm
# yum install mysql-community-server

安装成功后重启mysql服务。

# service mysqld restart

初次安装mysql,root账户没有密码。

[root@yl-web yl]# mysql -u root 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3
Server version: 5.6.26 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| test               |
+--------------------+
rows in set (0.01 sec)
 
mysql>

mysql> set password for 'root'@'localhost' =password('password');
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql>

不需要重启数据库即可生效。


在mysql安装过程中如下内容:
Installed:
  mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7                
  mysql-community-devel.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7                
  mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7                  
  mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7               
 
Dependency Installed:
  mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7                                                                            
 
Replaced:
  mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0          
  mariadb-devel.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0   
  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0  
  mariadb-server.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0
所以安装完以后mariadb自动就被替换了,将不再生效。
# rpm -qa |grep mariadb
#
三、配置mysql
1、编码

mysql配置文件为/etc/my.cnf


最后加上编码配置


[mysql]
default-character-set =utf8


这里的字符编码必须和/usr/share/mysql/charsets/Index.xml中一致。

图片:271615224693150.png





2、远程连接设置
把在所有数据库的所有表的所有权限赋值给位于所有IP地址的root用户。


mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to root@'%'identified by 'password';

如果是新用户而不是root,则要先新建用户


mysql>create user 'username'@'%' identified by 'password';

此时就可以进行远程连接了。
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